Stands for International Business Machines
(Internet Control Message Protocol) A message control and
error-reporting protocol between a host server and a gateway to the
Internet. ICMP uses Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams, but the messages are
processed by the IP software and are not directly apparent to the
A small video display that acts as an activation link when clicked on.
(Integrated Development Environment) A programming environment
integrated into an application. For example, Microsoft Office applications
support various versions of the BASIC programming language. You can develop
a WordBasic application while running Microsoft Word.
(Internet Information Server):
A Web server that runs on the Windows NT/2000 platforms. It allows the
creation of web-based applications. IIS provides both FTP server and web
Typically, an image map is graphical representation (also known as "hot
spots") containing predefined clickable hyperlinks. A good example of an
image map would be a map containing clickable outlined images of each city.
Once the user clicks the image, they are taken to a seperate web page
containing information regarding that particular city.
Internet Message Access Protocol
IMAP is gradually replacing POP as the main protocol used by email clients
in communicating with email servers.
Using IMAP, an email client program can not only retrieve email but can also
manipulate messages stored on the server without having to actually retrieve
the messages. So messages can be deleted, have their status changed,
multiple mail boxes can be managed, etc.
A light that is so red that it is not viewable to the naked eye. It uses
this invisible beam of light to transmit a pre-programmed 'line-of-sight'
signal to certain electronic components. Its typical use involves wireless
devices such as a TV remote controller.
The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute.
Another name for a chip, an IC is a small electronic device made out of
a semiconductor material.
This is any type of point where two different things come together. Most
often, the term is used to describe the programs between you and your
computer like Windows, OS/2 and others. What you see on the screen is the
interface between you and what your computer is doing.
A display technique that enables a monitor to provide more resolution
inexpensively. With interlacing monitors, the electron guns draw only half
the horizontal lines with each pass (for example, all odd lines on one pass
and all even lines on the next pass). Because an interlacing monitor
refreshes only half the lines at one time, it can display twice as many
lines per refresh cycle, giving it greater resolution. Another way of
looking at it is that interlacing provides the same resolution as
non-interlacing, but less expensively.
A recording method that reduces data errors during playback. Instead of
the file being written in a contiguous data stream, the data sectors are
intermixed along the recording track. If a disc should have a smudge or
scratch, the entire data file is generally recoverable because a smaller
amount of the file data is affected.
A modem that resides on an expansion board that plugs into a computer.
In contrast, an external modem is a box that attaches to a computer's COM
port via cables.
The Internet is a super-network. It connects many smaller networks
together and allows all the computers to exchange information with each
other. To accomplish this all the computers on the Internet have to use a
common set of rules for communication. Those rules are called protocols, and
the Internet uses a set of protocols called TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol). Many people equate the World Wide Web with the
Internet. In fact, the Internet is like the highway, and the World Wide Web
is like a truck that uses that highway to get from place to place.
A signal informing a program that an event has occurred. When a program
receives an interrupt signal, it takes a specified action (which can be to
ignore the signal). Interrupt signals can cause a program to suspend itself
temporarily to service the interrupt.
Interrupt signals can come from a variety of sources. For example, every
keystroke generates an interrupt signal. Interrupts can also be generated by
other devices, such as a printer, to indicate that some event has occurred.
These are called hardware interrupts. Interrupt signals initiated by
programs are called software interrupts. A software interrupt is also called
a trap or an exception.
PCs support 256 types of software interrupts and 15 hardware interrupts.
Each type of software interrupt is associated with an interrupt handler -- a
routine key on your keyboard, this triggers a specific interrupt handler.
The complete list of interrupts and associated interrupt handlers is stored
in a table called the interrupt vector table, which resides in the first 1 K
of addressable memory.
A private network for communications and sharing of information that,
like the Internet, is based on TCP/IP but is accessible only to authorized
users within an organization. An organizationís intranet is usually
protected from external access by a firewall. See also: Extranet.
Stands for Internet Protocol Security. A set of protocols developed by
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) and designed to provide protection of
sensitive data over unprotected public networks, such as the Internet.
Short for Internetwork Packet Exchange, a networking protocol used by
the Novell NetWare operating systems. Like UDP/IP, IPX is a datagram
protocol used for connectionless communications. Higher-level protocols,
such as SPX and NCP, are used for additional error recovery services. The
successor to IPX is the NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP).
Stands for Information System.
The bus architecture used in the IBM PC/XT and PC/AT. It's often
abbreviated as ISA (pronounced as separate letters or as eye-sa) bus. The AT
version of the bus is called the AT bus and became a de facto industry
standard. Starting in the early 90s, ISA began to be replaced by the PCI
local bus architecture. Most computers made today include both an AT bus for
slower devices and a PCI bus for devices that need better bus performance.
In 1993, Intel and Microsoft introduced a new version of the ISA
specification called Plug and Play ISA. Plug and Play ISA enables the
operating system to configure expansion boards automatically so that users
do not need to fiddle with DIP switches and jumpers.
Integrated Services Digital Network. ISDN is a public global network
capable of transmitting voice, data and images at speeds up to 2 Mbit/s. The
digital technique can transport more signals on the same telephone line than
the traditional analogue technique and enables a range of new services.
Stands for the International Standards Organization. Someone has to say
what is the standard for transferring data. These people are it. You'll find
them in Paris.
Internet Service Provider, a company that provides access to the
Internet. For a monthly fee, the service provider gives you a software
package, username, password and access phone number. Equipped with a modem,
you can then log on to the Internet and browse the World Wide Web and
USENET, and send and receive e-mail.
In addition to serving individuals, ISPs also serve large companies,
providing a direct connection from the company's networks to the Internet.
ISPs themselves are connected to one another through Network Access Points (NAPs).
ISPs are also called IAPs (Internet Access Providers).
Integrated Services Digital Network.
Basically a way to move more data over regular existing phone lines. ISDN is
available to much of the USA and in most markets it is priced very
comparably to standard analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of
roughly 128,000 bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In practice, most
people will be limited to 56,000 or 64,000 bits-per-second.
Unlike DSL, ISDN can be used to connect to many different locations, one at
a time, just like a regular telephone call, as long the other location also
A type style with slightly slanted characters, used for emphasis. Best
used to set off quotes, special phrases, and foreign words, italic letters
have a redesigned structure that allows them to slant to the right. The
first italic type was designed by Aldus Manutius in AD 1501 and was based on
the handwriting style of that time. Furthermore, lowercase letters were in
italics while capital letters were Roman (or vertical stance).