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Glossary of Internet and Computer Terms

 

Below, you will find a comprehensive glossary of Internet and Computer terms with definitions that are helpful and easy to understand. To find a term, click the letter of which the word begins with and scroll alphabetically to find your term. For example, to find the definition for the word "Media", click the letter "M", then scroll the list alphabetically until you find "Media".

[A][B][C][D][E][F][G][H][I][J][K][L][M][N][O][P][Q][R][S][T][U][V][W][XYZ]

 

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  • NACS: 
    Stands for Netware Asynchronous Communication Services.
     

  • Nanosecond:
    A billionth of a second. Many computer operations, such as the speed of memory chips, are measured in nanoseconds. Nanosecond is often abbreviated as ns.
     

  • Native:
    The relationship between a transport user and a transport provider, both being based on the same transport protocol. Also, a specific software could be written to run on a specific processor, which would make that software 'native' to that processor.
     

  • Netbeui:
    Netbeui is short for NetBios Enhanced User Interface. It is an enhanced version of the NetBIOS protocol used by network operating systems such as LAN Manager, LAN Server, Windows for Workgroups, Windows 95 and Windows NT. 

    Netbeui was originally designed by IBM for their Lan Manager server and later extended by Microsoft and Novell.
     

  • Network: 
    This a system that sends and receives data.
     

  • Network Adapter:
    This is a hardware unit that connects a device to a communication line. For wide area networks (WAN), these adapters connect routers to the specific type of connection (T1, BRI) that is installed. For local area networks (LAN), these adapters connect workstations to the LAN (Ethernet or TokenRing) cabling. 
     

  • Network Card:
    Also, Network Interface Card or NIC. This is a component of a computer that enables the computer to communicate with other computers via a direct network connection.
     

  • Newsgroup:
    An online discussion community found on the USENET system. These groups cover thousands of different topics of information and are offered free of charge.
     

  • NLX:
    New Low-Profile eXtended (motherboard form factor). The NLX form factor features a number of improvements over the previous design LPX form factor and began heavy usage in late 1997. The popularity of the design was confirmed by massive design use in 1998. The popularity has made it Intel's flagship line and one of the profit leaders in chipsets. Its features include:

    1. Support for larger memory modules and DIMMs.
    2. Support for the newest microprocessors, including the Pentium II using SEC packaging.
    3. Support for AGP video cards.
    4. Better access to motherboard components.
    5. Support for dockable designs in which the motherboard can be removed without tools.
     

  • Node:
    In networks, a processing location. A node can be a computer or some other device, such as a printer. Every node has a unique network address, sometimes called a Data Link Control (DLC) address or Media Access Control (MAC) address.
     

  • Noise:
    Interference (static) that destroys the integrity of signals on a line. Noise can come from a variety of sources, including radio waves, nearby electrical wires, lightning, and bad connections. One of the major advantages of fiber optic cables over metal cables is that they are much less susceptible to noise.
     

  • NTFS:
    Short for NT File System, one of the file system for the Windows NT operating system (Windows NT also supports the FAT file system). NTFS has features to improve reliability, such as transaction logs to help recover from disk failures. To control access to files, you can set permissions for directories and/or individual files. NTFS files are not accessible from other operating such as DOS. 

    For large applications, NTFS supports spanning volumes, which means files and directories can be spread out across several physical disks.
     

  • NTLDR:
    Short for NT Loader, a program loaded from the hard drive boot sector that displays the Microsoft Windows NT startup menu and helps Windows NT load.
     

  • Null Value:
    In computer programming, this represents something of no value. A null value could also indicate that the value for a row is either missing or not known. Placing a zero in a row would not be representative of a null value because zero is a value.
     

  • NUMA (Non-Uniform Memory Access):
    A method of configuring a cluster of microprocessor in a multiprocessing system so that they can communicate with each other, this improves performance and its expansion ability.
     

  • NVRAM: 
    (Non-Volatile Random Access Memory) Any type of memory that is made non-volatile by connecting it to a constant power source, such as a battery. Therefore, non-volatile memory does not lose its contents when the main power is turned off.  

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