Media hold about 74 minutes of audio, or about 650MB of data. This is the
equivalent to 450 1.44 MB floppy discs. Some CD-R
blanks can hold up to 80 minutes of audio, or about 700MB of data.
Diagnostic is specifically designed for:
This program doesn't repair ”coasters” or
exploit features of specific CD recorders for recovering CD-R's which have
been incorrectly written. It doesn't even require a CD recorder to
operate - it should function very well with all CD-ROM drives which have
been manufactured in the last few years. An exception to this is
packet-written CD-R and CD-RW discs which have not been finalized yet.
These discs are only readable in a CD recorder and sometimes only the
recorder which wrote them.
- People with a CD recorder that occasionally have
problems with recorded CD's.
- People involved in the production of CD-ROMs.
- People that have had problems with CD-R or CD-RW
discs and have discs with inaccessible files
- People that are curious about the construction of
CD's in general
are some very important tips how to configure the system to avoid burning
- When using Win95 OSR2 or
Win98 change the workstation Typical Role from: Desktop computer ->
This must be done here:
-> Settings -> Control Panel -> System -> Performance ->
File System -> Typical role of this computer
This will increase the
system file-system cache settings from 32/677 paths/files to 64/2729
paths/files. This will be very helpful for burning On-The-Fly.
- Disable the Auto insert
notification for the CD-Writer & CD-ROMs).
This is done here (read the note below):
-> Settings -> Control Panel -> System -> Device Manager
-> CDROM -> Device Name -> Settings
- When having problems
burning On-The-Fly, just use CD-Writer software, like Nero or CDRWIN, to
first create a CD Image on harddisk and then to write the CD-R from the
- Use a separate disk
partition/harddisk to burn from as this partition can be formatted to
avoid fragmentation. If there is only one partition then regularly
defragment the harddisk, containing the files which are to be burned.
Right-Click on the disk-icon and select Properties. Click the Tools tab
and click Defragment Now. This can take some time to complete depending
how often this has been done and how big the drive is.
insert notification must be Enabled on the CD-Writer for Direct CD to
The length of time it takes to record (write)
a disk depends on how much data or how many minutes of audio you have and
the speed of your CD recorder or rewritable. If, for example, you have a
full 650 Mb of data or 74 minutes of audio, at single speed it would take 74
minutes to record. A 2X recorder (recording at double speed), it would take
37 minutes to record. If you have a 4X recorder (recording at quadruple
speed), it would take 18.5 minutes.
CD writing is a real-time process which must run
constantly at the selected recording speed, without interruptions. The CD
recorder's buffer is constantly filled with a reserve of data waiting to be
written, so that small slowdowns or interruptions in the flow of data from
the computer do not interrupt writing.
A buffer underrun error means that for some reason the flow of data from
source (e.g., hard disk, CD-ROM drive) to CD recorder was interrupted long
enough for the CD recorder's buffer to be emptied, and writing was halted.
If this occurs during an actual write operation rather than a test, your
recordable disc may be ruined.
Possible Causes of Buffer
Extremely fragmented hard drive.
Not enough space in temporary
Hard disk compression may cause
buffer underruns. We do not recommend writing from a compressed
hard disk or disk partition.
recalibration (only on very old hard drives).
Spindown of CD-ROM drives you're
copying data or audio from.
Slow source devices.
Source devices that transfer data in
Incorrect recorder controller
Inability of the devices to sync
Overall system configuration.
Computer unable to allow fast enough
Conflicts with old device drivers.
Do not use 16-bit (real-mode) device drivers in Windows 95 or 98. REM out
any old CD-ROM drives you may have in your CONFIG.SYS file. (You don't
need them anyway.)
Setting hard drive read ahead
optimization to "none" may cure buffer underruns in some cases.
(Go to the Start menu | Settings | Control Panel | System
| Performance | Advanced Settings/File System | Hard Disk and set
"Read-ahead optimization" to "None.")
Files to Be Recorded
Recording many small files.
Damaged source files (data loss).
Trying to record files in use by the
system or other applications.
Checks / Prevention
Defragment your hard drives at least
once a week.
Do not record across a network. Copy
the desired files to your local hard drive.
If your source hard disk is more
than five years old, make sure it does smart thermal recalibration.
Record at a slower speed.
In any operating system, always
using the newest drivers from your SCSI controller card manufacturer.
It may be necessary to write audio
at slower speeds than those you can achieve for data, since writing CD-DA
audio requires streaming more bits per second to the recorder.
Keep the CDs, the recorder, and your
source CD-ROM drive free of dust.
Make sure your SCSI card is FULLY
Do not try to copy empty
directories, zero byte files, or files that may be in use by the system at
the time of recording.
If your data includes more than
10,000 very small files, create a disc image first, or record at a slower
The temporary directory should
always have space free at least twice the size of the largest file you are
The entire computer, from the
motherboard bus to the recorder itself, needs to be configured properly
for faster recording and highest maximum sync transfer rate.
Change the DMA transfer rate for the
SCSI card being used.
Try a different brand of recordable
This tip brought to you by:
to create a Bootable CD
- Create a boot DOS diskette with
FORMAT A:/S, then copy the CD-ROM device driver, msCDex.exe, sys.com and
xcopy.exe (see note A 2) create a simple config.sys with the line:
lastdrive=z device=my_CDrom_driver.sys /d:restore Also create a simple
autoexec.bat with MSCDEX.exe /d:restore /l:z (where z is the drive letter
of the cd) and copy it to the boot disk.
- Launch Easy CD Creator.
- Add all of your hard drive's
contents to the Data CD layout page.
- Select File | CD Layout Properties
| Data Settings.
- Check "Bootable CD."
- Select "ISO 9660" and
click on the Properties button. Select "Any MS-DOS 8+3 name."
- Proceed with creating the CD. You
will be asked to insert a bootable diskette; insert the disk you created
in steps 1 & 2.
1. If you wish, you can add: the keyboard files you need for your country
(copy the same entries you find in the C drive Config.sys and Autoexec.bat
without any paths on the new diskette Config.sys and Autoexec.bat, and the
requested files); you might also want to include Fdisk.exe and Format.com
to clear up or modify the partition (especially useful after a virus
2. If you're using SCSI CD drivers, you will need the SCSI driver too and
the line in the config.sys for the SCSI controller device driver (note
that not all SCSI-controllers and motherboards can be used to boot from
This tip is brought to you by: Adaptec
- Do not touch the recording surface while keeping
dust and fingerprints off the disk.
- To remove dust or debris use canned air.
- To remove fingerprints, smudges or other surface
contaminants, use a lint free cloth (lens cleaner) and wipe the disk from
the center hub ring to the outside of the disk, using a motion
perpendicular to the tracks. Never wipe in a circular motion around the
disk as this will imbed the contaminants deeper into the surface.
- Do not expose the disk to sudden changes of
temperature or humidity. This may cause the disc to warp or condensation
to appear on the surface.
- Do not write on the surface of the disk using a hard tipped pen or
pencil. If you must write on the surface of the disk use a water based pen
that does not contain any chemical solvents. These solvents can damage the
dye layer of the disk and render the disk unusable. Writing must only be
done on the protective layer surface.
- If you will be using any adhesive labels or stickers, some precautions
should be taken: 1) Labels must be perfectly adhered to the disk surface.
Any bubbling or creasing will imbalance the disk which can cause tracking
errors or noisy spin ups. 2) Never attempt to remove an adhered label. This
can damage the protective layer or the reflective layer causing permanent
damage to the disk. In addition, as with writing pens, insure your labels
adhesive does not contain any chemical solvents that can become absorbed
into the dye layer.
- CDR's should always be stored in their original
jewel cases or caddies to minimize contaminants and surface damage. Never
store CDR's one on top of another, without a jewel case.
- Always keep CDR's away from direct sunlight or
extreme heat. This too could possibly cause damage to the dye layer which
is sensitive to light.
of Writing / Reading
To record on a CD-R, the CD-R drive employs a laser
beam with the same wavelength as that used when reading a CD (780nm), yet at
a much higher strength. And to guide the laser, the CD-R disc features a
spiral groove molded into its surface, unlike a pressed CD. When recording,
the laser focuses on the disc, generating heat to above 300º on only the
affected region. This causes the organic dye (found in the recording layer)
and the substrate of that small area (0.6 microns wide) to be physically
altered. Not surprisingly, the optical characteristics (refractive index) of
that area are also altered and this is the difference between
"burned" and "not-burned" areas which is recognized by
the CD-R drive.
Labeling your CD
When labeling your
CD, make sure that you use a pen that is specifically for this purpose.
The non-recordable surface of the CD is very delicate and using a hard pen or
pencil can damage it.
Using a stick-on label can be a lot more
trouble than it is worth. If it is not centered on the disk perfectly
and without any air bubbles, it could wobble inside the drive making the CD
useless. Also, removing a stick-on label can render a CD
unreadable. If you are still set on using a stick-on label, make sure
that it is one that is designed specifically for CD applications.
Scan at the Right Resolution
Consider what you'll be using your scans for before pushing the resolution all the way up. While it's true that even low-resolution Web images will look better if you scan them at higher resolution and then decrease the resolution before putting them online, you don't need to scan everything at 600 DPI. If you need high-quality images, then by all means bump the quality up to the max. But if you don't, dropping the resolution down can save you time on the scan and disk space for the images.
Enable DMA Mode
When writing at higher speeds, it is advised to enable
DMA (Direct Memory Access) mode. This will help to avoid buffer underruns and other possible
errors. Here's how:
- In Windows 95/98/Me, go to Start>
Settings> Control Panel> System and click the Device Manager tab.
- Double-click CD-ROM and select the model for your CD-RW drive.
- Click Properties and then click the Settings tab.
- Look for the DMA check box under Options and click it to put a check mark in the box.
- Click OK and your PC should reboot.
- You may also need to enable DMA mode in your BIOS settings. To learn how to do this, refer to your system's documentation.
If you're having trouble formatting CD-RW disks, disabling DMA may solve the problem.[Top]
What the X factor
One thing to keep in mind when looking at a CD-R or CD-RW drive is what the X
factor means; multiply that number by 150 kilobytes to get the maximum data transfer rate per second. For instance, 4X write speed means that the drive is capable of transferring data at 600 K/sec., given optimal system conditions.
If your Autorun feature has stopped
functioning, you can try this registry fix.